Garlic is something we use to flavor various foods, from entrees to French fries. But an undeniable property of him is his strong smell. For those of you who love garlic but always wish it wasn't so spicy, here is the ideal creation: black garlic. Not only do they not leave a bad smell, but black garlic supplements have a variety of benefits ranging from lowering cholesterol to treating high blood pressure.
Process to form black garlic
Black garlic, which is fresh fermented or aged garlic, has numerous health benefits ranging from its strong antioxidant nature to its potential role in treating cancer.
With its unique sweet taste and gelatinous consistency, it is widely known in Asia for its antioxidant properties.
Black garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a fermented garlic product made by treating fresh garlic for an average of 10 days at high temperatures (40 to 60 ° C) and high humidity. It undergoes a Maillard reaction, which causes different compounds to form during the reaction. The reaction also darkens the white garlic to a black color.
Processes vary widely between providers, with aging treatments ranging from 4 to 40 days. One study found that 21 days of treatment at 70 degrees and 90% relative humidity was better for the antioxidant capabilities of black garlic.
While you can add black garlic to your diet, supplements are also available.
Antioxidant properties of black garlic
When garlic undergoes a treatment to turn into black garlic, allicin, the component that gives fresh garlic its noticeable smell, is converted into a variety of antioxidant compounds.
· Amadori / Heyns Compounds: These are formed during the Maillard reaction. Amadori / Heyns compounds are strong antioxidants, and compared to fresh garlic, black garlic has up to 40 to 100 times more of these compounds.
· 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural - This is an antioxidant that also has some anti-inflammatory effects. Compared to white garlic, black garlic has a higher amount of this beneficial component, as 5-HMF is created over very high heat.
· Organosulfur compounds: diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl tetrasulfide.
· Pyruvate - is a key antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule in black garlic. Reduces nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, which prolong and intensify inflammation.
· N-fructosyl glutamate
· N-fructosyl arginine
· N-alpha- (1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) -l-arginine
· Other alkaloids, polyphenols and flavonoids
Health benefits of black garlic
1. Black garlic has anti-cancer properties
Black garlic is toxic to a variety of cancer cells and can stop their growth and division, and kill them. Some of these cancer cells are the A549 lung cancer cell, the HepG2 liver cancer cell, and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell. Several cell studies have been conducted to analyze the specific anti-cancer abilities of black garlic
In a study of human leukemia cells, black garlic stopped the growth of cancer cells. It triggered signaling molecules (caspase) to initiate programmed cell death.
Cell death occurs because black garlic increases death receptor 4 and Fas ligand receptors on human cell membranes. These receptors bind to various other molecules that cause the cell to die. It also increases the number of enzymes that are vital for cell death.
May help treat stomach cancer
In a study of human stomach cancer cells, black garlic in concentrations of 10 mg / ml, 50 mg / ml, and 100 mg / ml successfully killed cancer cells. This demonstrated its potential role in chemotherapy.
Black garlic can treat colon cancer
Treatment with black garlic caused cell death from colon cancer. It also stopped the cell cycle process of growth, replication and division.
Black garlic accomplishes this by stopping the manufacture of proteins that help with cellular processes such as structure and communication. Specifically, it stops a signal (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B transduction pathway) that promotes protein synthesis and thus prevents the survival of cancer cells.
Can treat endometriosis
In human endometrial cancer cells, 50 μg / ml of black garlic prevented the growth of cancer cells by stopping important signals.
2. Benefits the heart
In a 12-week human study (placebo) involving 60 people, 30 people were given 6 g of black garlic 2 times a day before meals. Increased HDL (good) cholesterol levels compared to the placebo group at the end of the study. However, there were no changes in LDL (bad cholesterol).
The high levels of organosulfur compounds in black garlic also relax the blood vessels, leading to lower blood pressure. In a 12-week study of 79 patients with high blood pressure, they took 2 or 4 black garlic tablets daily. Their average blood pressure dropped significantly by 11.8 mm Hg.
3. It is a strong antioxidant
Black garlic reduces the allicin content by converting allicin, an unstable compound, into more stable compounds that happen to be excellent antioxidants. The Maillard reaction causes brown discoloration of garlic and generates several compounds that have antioxidant properties.
Black garlic is 10 times more effective than fresh garlic in its antioxidant power. Garlic mimics an enzyme (superoxide dismutase) defending cells from hydrogen peroxide, a kind of reactive oxygen that can cause tissue damage.
4. Can reduce inflammation
In a study of human cells, 5-HMF, an antioxidant found in black garlic, stopped the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB).
This is important, as this molecule controls the release of cytokines that prolong and stimulate cells activated by TNF-α.
Cells activated by TNF-α promote the inflammatory response and increase blood flow, swelling, and defensive cells in the area.
Black garlic also reduced the number of proteins that bind cells together and create blood clots. It also reduced the number of cells that cause inflammation and cell damage.
Allergies are related to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and mast cells that help promote long-term inflammation. Specifically, a type I allergic response is activated by the IgE receptor found on the outer surface of immune cells [R, R]. A cellular study that tested a treatment with 2 mg / ml of black garlic resulted in the decrease of inflammatory enzymes (β-hexosaminidase and TNF-α). This prevented an allergic response.
6. Black garlic can reduce liver damage
In a study with study subjects with oxidative liver damage, they were treated with black garlic. The treatment significantly reduced markers of liver damage.
Black garlic also increased the normal activity and metabolism of the liver as garlic increased the levels of a molecule called CYP2E1. It also decreased fatty liver deposits and rebalanced liver cell diameters to an optimal size.
7. May help reduce obesity
In one study, black garlic significantly decreased body weight, stomach fat, and fat cell (adipocyte) size in study subjects experiencing benefits from an overall decrease in fat. Black garlic also lowered triglyceride and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels and increased HDL (good) cholesterol levels.
8. Can protect brain cells from monosodium glutamate
You've probably heard of the MSG (monosodium glutamate) seasoning. In brain cells of study subjects, MSG damaged Purkinje cells in the brain (cerebellum and hippocampus).
The cerebellum and hippocampus are vital parts of the brain, as they control muscle coordination and enable the retention of human memory. Black Garlic Extract helped decrease Purkinje cell damage caused by MSG.
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